Concatenates AnnData objects along an axis.

concat(
  adatas,
  axis = 0L,
  join = "inner",
  merge = NULL,
  uns_merge = NULL,
  label = NULL,
  keys = NULL,
  index_unique = NULL,
  fill_value = NULL,
  pairwise = FALSE
)

Arguments

adatas

The objects to be concatenated. If a Mapping is passed, keys are used for the keys argument and values are concatenated.

axis

Which axis to concatenate along.

join

How to align values when concatenating. If "outer", the union of the other axis is taken. If "inner", the intersection. See concatenation for more.

merge

How elements not aligned to the axis being concatenated along are selected. Currently implemented strategies include: * NULL: No elements are kept. * "same": Elements that are the same in each of the objects. * "unique": Elements for which there is only one possible value. * "first": The first element seen at each from each position. * "only": Elements that show up in only one of the objects.

uns_merge

How the elements of .uns are selected. Uses the same set of strategies as the merge argument, except applied recursively.

label

Column in axis annotation (i.e. .obs or .var) to place batch information in. If it's NULL, no column is added.

keys

Names for each object being added. These values are used for column values for label or appended to the index if index_unique is not NULL. Defaults to incrementing integer labels.

index_unique

Whether to make the index unique by using the keys. If provided, this is the delimeter between "orig_idxindex_uniquekey". When NULL, the original indices are kept.

fill_value

When join="outer", this is the value that will be used to fill the introduced indices. By default, sparse arrays are padded with zeros, while dense arrays and DataFrames are padded with missing values.

pairwise

Whether pairwise elements along the concatenated dimension should be included. This is FALSE by default, since the resulting arrays are often not meaningful.

Details

See the concatenation section in the docs for a more in-depth description.

warning: This function is marked as experimental for the 0.7 release series, and will supercede the AnnData$concatenate() method in future releases.

warning: If you use join='outer' this fills 0s for sparse data when variables are absent in a batch. Use this with care. Dense data is filled with NaN.

Examples

if (FALSE) { # Preparing example objects a <- AnnData( X = matrix(c(0, 1, 2, 3), nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE), obs = data.frame(group = c("a", "b"), row.names = c("s1", "s2")), var = data.frame(type = c(1L, 2L), row.names = c("var1", "var2")), varm = list( ones = matrix(rep(1L, 10), nrow = 2), rand = matrix(rnorm(6), nrow = 2), zeros = matrix(rep(0L, 10), nrow = 2) ), uns = list( a = 1, b = 2, c = list( c.a = 3, c.b = 4 ) ) ) b <- AnnData( X = matrix(c(4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9), nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE), obs = data.frame(group = c("b", "c"), row.names = c("s3", "s4")), var = data.frame(type = c(1L, 2L, 3L), row.names = c("var1", "var2", "var3")), varm = list( ones = matrix(rep(1L, 15), nrow = 3), rand = matrix(rnorm(15), nrow = 3) ), uns = list( a = 1, b = 3, c = list( c.a = 3 ) ) ) c <- AnnData( X = matrix(c(10, 11, 12, 13), nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE), obs = data.frame(group = c("a", "b"), row.names = c("s1", "s2")), var = data.frame(type = c(3L, 4L), row.names = c("var3", "var4")), uns = list( a = 1, b = 4, c = list( c.a = 3, c.b = 4, c.c = 5 ) ) ) # Concatenating along different axes concat(list(a, b))$to_df() concat(list(a, c), axis = 1L)$to_df() # Inner and outer joins inner <- concat(list(a, b)) inner inner$obs_names inner$var_names outer <- concat(list(a, b), join = "outer") outer outer$var_names outer$to_df() # Keeping track of source objects concat(list(a = a, b = b), label = "batch")$obs concat(list(a, b), label = "batch", keys = c("a", "b"))$obs concat(list(a = a, b = b), index_unique = "-")$obs # Combining values not aligned to axis of concatenation concat(list(a, b), merge = "same") concat(list(a, b), merge = "unique") concat(list(a, b), merge = "first") concat(list(a, b), merge = "only") # The same merge strategies can be used for elements in .uns concat(list(a, b, c), uns_merge = "same")$uns concat(list(a, b, c), uns_merge = "unique")$uns concat(list(a, b, c), uns_merge = "first")$uns concat(list(a, b, c), uns_merge = "only")$uns }